Earth Summit

The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development ( UNCED ), also known as Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit , Rio Summit , Rio Conference , and Earth Summit(Portuguese: ECO92), was a major United Nations conference held in Rio de Janeiro from 3 to 14 June 1992.

In 2012, the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development was also held in Rio, and is also commonly called Rio + 20 or Rio Earth Summit 2012. It was held from 13 to 22 June.


recommended site to use when researching: UNESCO. [1] [2]


172 governments involved, with their respective heads of state. [3] Some 2,400 representatives of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) attended, with 17,000 people at the parallel NGO “Global Forum” (also called Global Forum), who had Consultative Status .

The issues addressed included:

  • systematic scrutiny of patterns of production – PARTICULARLY the generation of toxic components, Such As Lead in gasoline , or poisonous waste Including radioactive chemicals
  • alternative sources of energy to replace the use of fossil fuels qui delegate access linked to global climate change
  • Reliance is new public transportation systems in order to Reduce Emissions vehicle, congestion in cities and the health problems Caused by polluted air and smoke
  • the growing use and limited supply of water

An important achievement of the summit is an agreement on the Climate Change Convention which in turn leads to the Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Agreement . Another agreement Was to “not to carry out Any activities on the lands of indigenous peoples That Would causes environmental degradation or That Would Be Culturally Inappropriate”.

The Convention on Biological Diversity has been opened for signature at the Earth Summit, and is designed to encourage the destruction of natural ecoregions and so-called uneconomic growth .

Although President George HW Bush signed the Earth Summit Convention on Climate, his EPA Administrator William K. Reilly acknowledges that the US has been adversely affected by the problem. Diversity. [4]

Twelve cities have also been honored by the Local Government Honors Award for Innovative Local Environmental Programs. These included Sudbury in Canada for its ambitious program to rehabilitate environmental damage from the local mining industry, Austin in the United States for its green building strategy, and Kitakyushu in Japan for incorporating an international education and training component of its municipal pollution control program.

The Earth Summit resulted in the following documents:

  • Rio Declaration on Environment and Development [5]
  • Agenda 21 [6] [7]
  • Forest Principles

Moreover, significant Legally binding agreements ( Rio Convention ) Were ouvert for signature:

  • Convention on Biological Diversity [8]
  • Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)
  • United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification

In order to Ensure compliance to the agreements at Rio (PARTICULARLY the Rio Declaration is Environment and Development and Agenda 21 ), delegate access to the Earth Summit Established the Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD). In 2013, the CSD was elected by the High-level Political Forum on Sustainable Development, which meets every year of the ECOSOC meetings, and every fourth year of the General Assembly meetings.

Critics point out that many of the agreements made in Rio de Janeiro have not been made relevant to such fundamental issues as fighting poverty and cleaning up the environment .

Green Cross International was founded on the work of the Summit.

The first edition of Water Quality Assessments, published by WHO / Chapman & Hall , was launched at the Rio Global Forum.

See also

  • Earth Summits – with a list of the Earth Summits since the first one in 1972
  • Earth Summit 2002 “Rio + 10” held in Johannesburg
  • Ecology summit
  • Global Map
  • National Strategy for a Sustainable America
  • Precautionary principle
  • Regional Forum on Environment and Health in Southeast and East Asian countries
  • The Environmental Institute
  • 1972 United Nations Conference on the Human Environment
  • United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development also known as “Rio 2012” or “Rio + 20”, hosted by Brazil in Rio de Janeiro , as a 20-year follow-up to the historic 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) .
  • United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification


  1. Jump up^ “UNESCO.COM” . . Retrieved 2017-11-05 .
  2. Jump up^ “UNESCO | Teaching and Learning for a Sustainable Future | Module 2: Understanding sustainable development” . . Retrieved 2017-11-05 .
  3. Jump up^ Taib, Fauziah (1997). Malaysia and UNCED . London: Kluwer Law International . p. 1. ISBN  90 411 0683 9 .
  4. Jump up^ EPA Alumni Association: EPA Administrator William K. Reilly discusses his efforts at the Rio conference, including successes and failures. Reflections on US Environmental Policy: An Interview with William ReillyVideo,Transcript(see pages 6, 7).
  5. Jump up^ United Nations Conference on Environment and Development. Rio Declaration on Environment and Development . . Retrieved 4 August 2014 .
  6. Jump up^ United Nations Agenda 21 Archived10 May 2009 at theWayback Machine.
  7. Jump up^ United Nations Conference on Environment and Development. “Agenda 21: Table of Contents, Earth Summit, 1992” . . Retrieved 4 August 2014 .
  8. Jump up^ “CBD Home” . . Retrieved 2014-08-04 .

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