Earth Summit 2002

The World Summit on Sustainable Development , WSSD gold NGO Earth Summit 2002 eu lieu in Johannesburg , South Africa, from 26 August to 4 September 2002. It was convened to the Chat sustainable development by the United Nations. WSSD gathered from non-governmental organizations, 10 years after Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro. (It was also informally nicknamed “Rio + 10”.)


The Johannesburg Declaration was the main outcome of the Summit; however, there are several other international agreements.

It laid out the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation as an action plan. [1]


Johannesburg, 27 August: The world is set to restore the world’s depleted fisheries for 2015. It was agreed to by negotiators at the World Summit.

Instead, the Earth Summit has been organized mostly around 300 “partnership initiatives” known as Type II , as opposed to Type I Partnerships which are the most important outcome of international treaties. These were the key to achieving the Millennium Development Goals . These are kept in a database of Partnerships for Sustainable Development. [2]

US participation

The absence of the United States rendered the summit partially impotent. George W. Bush boycotted the summit and did not wait. Except for a brief appearance by Colin Powell , who hurriedly addressed the closing stages of the conference of the Johannesburg International Convention, the US government did not send a delegation, earning Bush praised in a letter from conservative organizations such as Americans for Tax Reform , American Enterprise Institute , and Competitive Enterprise Institute . [3] [4]


The United Nations Conference on the Human Environment , was held in Stockholm , Sweden, in June 1972, and marked the emergence of international environmental law. The Declaration on the Human Environment is also known as the Stockholm Declaration and the principles of environmental and natural resources, including human rights, natural resource management, pollution prevention and the relationship between the environment and development. The conference also led to the creation of the United Nations Environment Program .

The Brundtland Commission set up by Gro Harlem Brundtland , the pioneer of sustainable development , provided the momentum for the first Earth Summit 1992 – the United Nations Conference on Environmental Development (UNCED), who was also led by Maurice Strong, who had been a prominent member of the Brundtland Commission – and also for Agenda 21 .

South Africa’s first National Conference on Environment and Development entitled, “Ecologize Politics, Politicise Ecology” was held at the University of Western Cape in conjunction with the Cape Town Ecology Group and the Western Cape Branch of the World Conference on Religion and Peace in 1991 Prominent persons involved in this conference were Ebrahim Rasool , Cheryl Carolus , Faried Esack, and Julia Martin.

The initial informal discussions on a new Summit in 2002 were held in February 1998 and hosted by Derek Osborn who co-chaired the preparatory meetings for Rio + 5 and Stakeholder Forum for a Sustainable Future . A set of 10 governments started working together to start putting together the possible agenda for a Summit. the un-papers produced in 1998 and 1999 ensured that when the Commission puts in 2000 it could agree to another Summit in 2002.

See also

  • Agenda 21
  • Energy development
  • Global Map
  • Green energy
  • National Strategy for a Sustainable America
  • Sustainability
  • United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development , the follow-up conference in 2012
  • United Nations Environment Program


  1. Jump up^
  2. Jump up^
  3. Jump up^ Brainerd Dispatch, citing AP (August 15, 2002). “Conservatives praise Bush for opting out of Earth Summit” . Associated Press . Retrieved 21 June 2011 .
  4. Jump up^ “WWSD Info News” . IISD . . Retrieved 21 June 2011 .

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