World Ocean Conference

The World Ocean Conference 2009 ( WOC ) is an international conference to develop a common understanding and firm commitment to address the impact of climate change on the world’s oceans, and increase the understanding of the climate moderator . This conference includes diplomats and heads of state from a number of countries. It took place in May 2009 in Manado , Indonesia . [1] Its topic is the threat to various nations from rising oceans to global warming . [2]

The conference was scheduled to be held from 11 – 14 May, included hundreds of officials and experts from over 74 countries. [3] It is seen as a prelude to talks in December 2009 regarding a successor agreement to the Kyoto Protocol . [4]


The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) its Kyoto Protocol, the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), and the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter, 1972, and its 1996 Protocol. [4] [5] Recognizing that oceans and coasts provide valuable resources and services to support human populations, especially coastal communities that heavily depend on them. Sustainable use of marine living resources will enhance global food security and reduce poverty for present and future generations. The declaration will be put forwardA FCCC and hopefully adopted at COP 15 in Copenhagen at the end of the year. [6] [7]

Climate change issues that could have been achieved on inter alia. [8] Marine and marine-based marine pollution and marine-based pollution, alien invasive species, unsustainable use of marine and coastal resources, physical alteration, poor land-use planning, and socio-economic pressures, et al. of economic growth, economic prosperity, and the well-being of human populations. [6][8]

Realizing the effects of climate change, The WOC agrees to discuss the commitments to change the role of the ocean. The WOC have three main interests of states: [8]

  • SIDS – very concerned on sea-level rise (Indonesia is the largest archipelagic country in the wolrd). Indonesia is low lying coastal areas. [9]
  • Tropical developing states – on adaptation measures, food security, and livelihood
  • Developed states – observing the possibility that the ocean could function as “Carbon Sink”


The main purpose of the WOC 2009 is to adopt the Manado Ocean Declaration (MOD). [7] The declaration consists of 14 core opening paragraphs and 21 points of operative agreement. The contents of the declaration include the commitment to long-term conservation, management, and sustainable use of marine living resources, establish national strategies to sustainably manage marine and coastal ecosystems and enhance their resilience, reduce land-and-sea-based pollution, and to increase understanding and information exchange on coasts, oceans and climate change, particularly in developing countries. [8] [10]

Despite criticism, the Indonesian Maritime Affairs and Fisheries Minister Freddy Numberi , chairman of the conference, said the WOC and raised awareness of the importance of oceans in climate change. But representatives of both developed and developing countries expressed satisfaction with the results. [7] [11]

See also

  • Ocean acidification
  • Kyoto Protocol
  • Copenhagen Accord


  1. Jump up^ “World Ocean Conference 2009 Digelar di Manado” (in Indonesian). Kompas . Retrieved 6 July 2017 .
  2. Jump up^ “World Ocean Conference Bulletin” . International Institute for Sustainable Development . Retrieved 6 July 2017 .
  3. Jump up^ Asian Development Bank 2009, p. 1
  4. ^ Jump up to:b United Nations 2009 , p. 23
  5. Jump up^ “United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of ​​10 December 1982” . United Nations . Retrieved 6 July 2017 .
  6. ^ Jump up to:b “World Ocean Conference” . Mangroves for the Future . Retrieved 6 July 2017 .
  7. ^ Jump up to:c “Manado Ocean Declaration Adopted at Ocean World Conference – Ocean States Eye Copenhagen” . Caribbean Environment Program . Retrieved 6 July 2017 .
  8. ^ Jump up to:d “World Ocean Conference 2009 & Coral Triangle Initative [sic] Summit” (PDF) . World Bank . Retrieved 6 July 2017 .
  9. Jump up^ Vaughn 2010, p. 19
  10. Jump up^ “Deklarasi Kelautan Manado Disepakati 75 Negara” (in Indonesian). Kompas . Retrieved 6 July 2017 .
  11. Jump up^ “FINAL Press Release: Laporan Capaian Panitia Penyelenggara WOC 2009 dan CTI Summit serves Langkah Menuju ke COP-15 UNFCCC Kopenhagen” (in Indonesian). PT BMCOM . Retrieved 6 July 2017 .

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