2013 United Nations Climate Change Conference

The United Nations Climate Change Conference , COP19 or CMP9 was held in Warsaw , Poland from 11 to 23 November 2013. This is the 19th annual session of the Conference of the Parties (COP 19) to the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change ( COP 19). UNFCCC) and the 9th meeting of the Meeting of the Parties (CMP 9) to the 1997 Kyoto Protocol . [1] The conference delegates continues the negotiations towards a global climate agreement. UNFCCC’s Executive Secretary Christiana Figueres and Poland Minister of the Environment Marcin Korolec led the negotiations.

The Warsaw Mechanism was also proposed, the conference would be as possible, but preferably by the first quarter of 2015 .

Background

Several preliminary and actual agreements have been made, including: the use of the Kyoto Protocol , improvements to several UNFCCC action mechanisms, and a refinement of the measurement, reporting, and verification of greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) . [2] Delegates are to focus on the potential conditions of a global climate changeagreement expected to be ratified in 2015 at the Paris Conference. [3]

Location and participation

The location of UNFCCC talks United Nations countries. In 2013 Warsaw, the capital and largest city in Poland, was chosen to represent the Eastern European Group in the COP 19 Presidency. [4]

The choice of Poland has been criticized by environmental organizations, including Greenpeace , because of the country’s lack of commitment to reduce its use of fossil fuels and increase the use of renewable energy . As of 2013, 88% of Poland’s electricity is sourced from coal, as compared to the global average of 68% electricity from fossil fuels. [5] Its officials have been blocking EU proposals to more effectively act against global warming. Standing alone against the other EU member states , in 2011 Marcin Korolec(president of the conference) declared himself skeptical about the EU’s strategy of leading by example. [6]

Over 10,000 participants from 189 countries registered to attend the conference, but only 134 ministers announced participation. Four countries are among the most vulnerable to climate change represented by their president or prime minister: Tuvalu , Nauru , Ethiopia and Tanzania . [7] [8] Polish Prime Minister Donald Tusk dismissed Korolec in favor of a politician who would be better able to deliver a “radical acceleration of shale gas operations” in the country. However, he said that Korolec would remain the government’s plenipotentiary for the conference. [9]

Negotiations

The overarching goal of the conference is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) to limit the global temperature increase to 2 degrees Celsius above current levels. [10] According to the Executive Secretary of the UNFCCC, Christiana Figueres,

“Global greenhouse gas emissions need to peak this decade, and get to zero net emissions by the second half of this century … National governments need to act to minimize impacts to their populations and ensure sustainable development over generations. The private sector needs to act to minimize climate risk and capture opportunity. And the international process must push forward to build the foundation for an ambitious universal climate change agreement in 2015, ” [11]

Clean energy, and specifically the financing and technology transfer of renewables in developing countries, will be of importance during the conference. The most important milestone would be climate finance and capitalization of the Green Climate Fund (GCF), which has not happened at all. talking of alternative sources of funding. – whereas in our view thesis are Commitments of the Parties to the COP ” [2] Agreements in the Copenhagen round ostensibly US $ Formalized 100 trillion to the Clean Energy Fund by 2020 to assist Developing countries in energy development , only $ 7.5 million had been committed as of June 2013. [2]Australia has the support of Britain and others to face off the world. Acting on Tony Abbott , Australian negotiators have held out against calls to support the loss and damage

Technology transfer and sharing of intellectual property and industrial development will be a major concern in the Warsaw talks. [12] Historically, these discussions have been staged in the Warsaw Conference. [2]

A stalemate surrounding the talks has-been the insistence of the United States delegate access on China and India conforming to binding reduction Commitments – whereas Chinese and Indian delegate access argues That funding from Industrialized countries is needed before Such emission cuts can be Executed without Impacting GDP growth rates. [2] India and Saudi Arabia, an agreement that could prevent the release of up to 100 billion metric tons of carbon dioxide emissions by 2050. A key paragraph in a draft resolution that would have accelerated international cooperation under the Montreal Protocol was reportedly deleted at the last minute. [13]

The deaths, injuries and destruction caused by Typhoon Haiyan were brought to attention during the opening day talks. In general, Naderev “Yeb” Saño , the lead negotiator of the Philippines, received a standing ovation for announcing:

In this case, I will now begin a voluntary fasting for climate, this means I will voluntarily refrain from eating food during this COP, until a meaningful outcome is in sight.
– Naderev Saño, speaking at the 2013 United Nations Climate Change Conference [14]

On 21 November, the first Cities and Sub-national Dialogue took place. This department of the ministers, mayors and sub-national leaders, and civil society representatives, discusses mitigation and adaptation at a local scale. [15]

Walkouts

The G77 and China 132 led block for the consequences of global warming. Poor countries have asked that the world be given $ 100 billion annually by 2020. The country did not send high-ranking officials to the summit, saying that they would be busy repealing the country’s contentious carbon tax. The Prime Minister Tony Abbott told The Washington Post.Despite a carbon tax of $ 37 a ton by 2020, Australia’s domestic emissions have been up, not down. The carbon tax is the main socialism masquerading as environmentalism, and that’s why it’s going to get abolished.

On the last day of the conference WWF , Oxfam , ActionAid , the International Trade Union Confederation , Friends of the Earth and Greenpeacewalked out of the conference. Greenpeace spokesman Gregor Kessler, however, said that they would not leave the city but would “follow the discussions from outside.” Oxfam Executive Director Winnie Byanyima said: “[Governments] must … come back in 2014 ready for meaningful discussions on how they will deliver their share of the poorest and most vulnerable countries adapt. ” All six issued a statement that reads: “Organizations and movements representing people from every corner of the earth are the ones who have the best of the world.[16]

Conclusion

The conference ran beyond the scheduled end of 22 November by a day [17] before some consensus was reached. Member states agreed to work towards the future as soon as possible, with an idea date targeted at the first quarter of 2015.

Talk, however, continued that the country would pay to help emissions cuts by developing countries. Having previously pledged US $ 100 billion a year after 2020 from the US $ 10 trillion a year between 2010-2012, they have been set for the rest of the decade. The draft resolution of the conference, though, only mentioned setting “increasing levels” of aid. Further the Warsaw Mechanism has been proposed, which would provide expertise, and possibly aid, to developing nations to cope with such extreme levels of heatwaves, droughts and floods, and to increase the levels of desertification. [18]

Criticism

Organizers

The organizers of COP19 have been strongly criticized for posting in the lead-up to the conference on the benefits of ice melting in the Arctic , stating that “we can build new drilling platforms and retrieve natural resources hidden below the sea” bed “, as well as” chasing the pirates, terrorists and ecologists that will come to hang around “. The blogger’s blogger’s blog: “Our recent entry on north-west has been discussed but unfortunately we have not yet been able to react. the featured situation? We are glad, that the topic caused so much interest and discussion, because the matter is really very serious.[19]

Organizers from the Ministry of Economy in Poland were also strongly criticized for co-hosting an event with the World Coal Association alongside the UNFCCC talks. This source has its origin in the world. [20]

The dismissal of the conference president Marcin Korolec from his position as minister of the environment of the global negotiations. Prime Minister Donald Tusk stated that the dismissal had to do with the need for “radical acceleration of shale gas operations”. [21]

Industrialized countries

The International Energy Agency has continually urged industrialized countries to reduce fossil fuel subsidies . It is expected that these subsidy actions will not be addressed. [22]

Several countries attending the COP 19 have been criticized for poor performance on stated environmental pollution targets. While the United States reduced its emissions of CO 2 in 2012 by 11.8 percent compared to 2005, the largest reduction of any country, others have not done so well. [23]

See also

  • Global warming portal
  • Post-Kyoto Protocol negotiations on greenhouse gas emissions
  • Politics of global warming
  • IPCC Fifth Assessment Report
  • Global Landscapes Forum: Warsaw 2013

References

  1. Jump up^ “19th Session of the Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC” . International Institute for Sustainable Development . Retrieved 20 February 2013 .
  2. ^ Jump up to:e “Bridges Warsaw update: Financing key to unlocking progress at COP 19” . International Center for Trade and Sustainable Development . Retrieved 12 November 2013 .
  3. Jump up^ Cienski, Jan (11 November 2013). “Gather Leaders in Warsaw for Climate Change Negotiations” . The Financial Times UK . Retrieved 12 November 2013 .
  4. Jump up^ “Incoming Polish Presidency of the 19th Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change” . United Nations Climate Change Forum . Retrieved 12 November 2013 .
  5. Jump up^ Key World Energy Statistics (PDF) . Paris: International Energy Agency. 2013. p. 24.
  6. Jump up^ Hakim, Danny and Mateusz Zurawik:”Poland, Wedded to Coal, Spurns Europe on Targets Clean Energy”, inThe New York Times , 31 October 2013
  7. Jump up^ Yeo, Sophie:”Warsaw climate talks: nearly 3 in 10 countries not retiring ministers”, in The Guardian , 14 November 2013
  8. Jump up^ http://www.cop19.gov.pl/latest-news/items/statement-of-president-of-cop19-minister-marcin-korolec-on-the-participation-of-ngos-in-the -climate-summit
  9. Jump up^ https://www.theguardian.com/environment/planet-oz/2013/nov/21/warsaw-climate-change-conference-global-warming#start-of-comments
  10. Jump up^ “Schedule of Events” (PDF) . United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 November 2013 . Retrieved 12 November 2013 .
  11. Jump up^ “UNFCCC: Warsaw COP” pivotal moment to step up climate action ” ” . Clean Tech Poland . Retrieved 12 November 2013 .
  12. Jump up^ “UNFCCC: Warsaw COP” pivotal moment to step up climate action ” ” . Clean Tech Poland . Retrieved 12 November 2013 .
  13. Jump up^ http: //www.theecologist.org/ News/ news_round_up/ 2170299/ cop19_india_and_saudi_arabia_join_the_climate_sabotors.html
  14. Jump up^ McGrath, Matt (11 November 2013). “Typhoon prompts ‘fast’ by Philippines climate delegate” . BBC . Retrieved 12 November 2013 .
  15. Jump up^ http://www.cop19.gov.pl/latest-news/items/city-mayors-and-regional-leaders-discuss-at-cop19cmp9
  16. Jump up^ http://www.aljazeera.com/news/europe/2013/11/green-groups-walk-out-a-climate-talks-2013112115105648189.html
  17. Jump up^ http://www.aljazeera.com/news/europe/2013/11/climate-summit-overtime-due-deadlock-201311234643975109.html
  18. Jump up^ http://www.aljazeera.com/news/europe/2013/11/deadlock-broken-at-a-climate-talks-20131123163641928770.html
  19. Jump up^ Vaughan, Adam:”Arctic melt means more pirate chases, say Polish climate hosts”in The Guardian , 10 October 2013
  20. Jump up^ Scislowska, Monika (8 November 2013). “Poland To Host Both Climate Change Conference And International Coal Summit” . The Huffington Post . Retrieved 12 November 2013 .
  21. Jump up^ “Climate talks: Polish environment minister sacked to accelerate shale gas operations”, in The Guardian , 20 November 2013
  22. Jump up^ World Energy Outlook . Paris: International Energy Agency. 2013. p. 57. ISBN  978-92-64-18084-0 .
  23. Jump up^ White House Fact Sheet June 25, 2013http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2013/06/25/fact-sheet-president-obama-s-climate-action-plan.

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