2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference

The 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference , COP 21 or CMP 11 was held in Paris , France, from 30 November to 12 December 2015. It was the 21st annual session of the Conference of the Parties (COP) to the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the 11th session of the Conference of the Parties (CMP) to the 1997 Kyoto Protocol . [1]

The conference negotiated the Paris Agreement , a global agreement on climate change , the text of which is a consensus of the representatives of the 196 parties attending it. [2] The agreement will enter into force at least 55 percent of global greenhouse emissions. [3] [4] [5] On 22 April 2016 (Earth Day), 174 countries signed the agreement in New York, [6] and began adopting their own legal systems (through ratification , acceptance, approval, or accession) .

According to the organizing committee at the outset of the talks, [7] the expected key result was an agreement to set a goal of limiting global warming to “well below 2 ° C” Celsiuscompared to pre-industrial levels. The agreement calls for zero net anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions to be reached during the second half of the 21st century. In the adopted version of the Paris Agreement, [3] the parties will also “pursue efforts to” limit the temperature increase to 1.5 ° C. [2] The 1.5 ° C goal will require zero emission sometime entre 2030 and 2050 selon Some scientists. [2]

Prior to the conference, the national climate panels have been presented with national climate contributions (called ” Intended Nationally Determined Contributions “, INDCs). These suggestions are worth to limit global warming to 2.7 degrees Celsius by 2100. [8] For example, the EU suggests INDC is a commitment to a 40 percent reduction in emissions by 2030 compared to 1990. [9] The agreement establishes a ” global stocktake “which revisits the national goals to” update and enhance “them every five years beginning 2023. [3] However,.

A number of meetings took place in preparation for COP21, including the Bonn Climate Change Conference, 19 to 23 October 2015, which produced a draft agreement. [10]

Background

According to the organizing committee of the summit in Paris, the objective of the 2015 conference is to achieve, for the first time in over 20 years of a negotiations, a binding and universal agreement on climate, from all the nations of the world. [11] Pope Francis published an encyclical called Laudato si ‘ intended, in part, to influence the conference. The encyclical calls for action against climate change citation needed ] . The International Trade Union Confederation has called for zero carbon, zero poverty, and its general secretary Sharan Burrow said “no jobs on a dead planet”.

Location and participation

The location of UNFCCC is United Nations countries. The 2015 conference was held at Le Bourget from 30 November [12] to 11 December 2015.

To some extent, France served as a model country for the production of fossil fuel oil while maintaining a high standard of living. [13] As of 2012, France generated over 90% of its electricity from zero carbon sources, including nuclear, hydroelectric, and wind.

The conference took place after a series of terrorist attacks in central Paris. Security was tightened accordingly, with 30,000 police officers and 285 security checkpoints deployed across the country until after the conference ended. [14]

The European Union and 195 nations ( see list in reference ) [15] were the participating parties.

Negotiations

The overarching goal of the convention is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to limit the global temperature increase. Since COP 17 this increase is at 2 ° C (3.6 ° F) above pre-industrial levels. [16] However, Christiana Figueres acknowledged in the closing briefing at the 2012 Doha Conference : “The current pledges under the second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol are clearly not ever increasing gap between the action of the countries and the science tells us. ”

These agreements are intended to be taken into account by the global agreement, by October 1, 2015. These commitments are known as Intended Nationally Determined Contributions or INDCs. [17] Together, the INDCs would reduce global warming by an estimated 4-5 ° C (by 2100) to 2.7 ° C, and reduce emissions per capita by 9% by 2030, while providing hope in the eyes of the conference organizers further reductions in the future that would allow meeting at 2 ° C target. [18]

Think-tanks such as the World Pensions Council (WPC) argued that the keys to success in US and China, by far the two largest national emitters: “As long as policy makers in Washington and Beijing did not put all their political capital behind the adoption of the ambitious carbon-emission capping targets, the laudable efforts of other people, the President of the United States, and the President of the United States Xi Jinping agreed to limit greenhouse gases emissions. ” [19]

President Obama insisted on America’s essential role in that look: “We’ve led by example […] from Alaska to the Gulf Coast to the Great Plains […] we’ve seen the longest streak of private jobs creation in our history . We have driven our economic output to all-time highs while driving our carbon pollution down to its lowest level in nearly two decades. And then, with our historic attached announcement with China last year, we Showed It was feasible to bridge the old divide entre Developed and Developing Nations That HAD stymied global progress for so long […] That was the foundation for success in Paris. ” [ 20]

Outcome

Main article: Paris Agreement

On December 12, 2015, the participating countries, by consensus, to the final [21] global pact, the Paris Agreement , to reduce emissions as part of the method for reducing greenhouse gas. In the 12-page document, [3] the members agreed to reduce their carbon output “as soon as possible” and to do their best to keep global warming “to well below 2 degrees C”. [22] In the race of the debates, island states of the Pacific, the Seychelles, but also the Philippines, their very existence was threatened by a 1.5 ° C goal of only 2 ° C . [23] [24]France’s Foreign Minister, Laurent Fabius, said this “ambitious and balanced” plan was a “historic turning point” in the goal of reducing global warming. [25] However, some others criticized the fact that significant sections are “promised” or “favored” by the countries. [26]

Non-binding commitments, lack of enforcement mechanisms

The Agreement will not be binding on its member states until 55 parties who produce over 55% of the world’s greenhouse gases have ratified the Agreement. There is doubt whether Some countries, Especially the United States, [27] will Agree to do so, though the United States Publicly committed, in Presidential Statement joined with China, to joining the Agreement in 2016. [2]

Each country ratifies the agreement, or “nationally determined contribution,” or “NDC,” but the amount will be voluntary. [28] [29] There Will Be Neither a mechanism to strength [30] has set a target to country by a specific time nor Enforcement Measures if a set target is not met. [29] [31] There will be a “name and shame” system [32] or, as János Pásztor , the UN Secretary-General on Climate Change, told CBS News , “has name and encouraged” plan. [33]

Some analysts have also noted that the United States , particularly China, US, India, Canada, Russia, Indonesia and Australia, more than half the world’s greenhouse gas emission, will Somehow drive down Their carbon pollution Voluntarily and assiduously Without Any binding enforcement mechanism to measure and control CO 2 emission at Any level from factory to state, and Without Any specific penalty gradation tax or pressure (for example to carbon tax ) to discourage bad behavior. ” [34]

Institutional investors’ contribution to limiting fossil fuels

Speaking at the 5th annual World Pensions Forum Held on the sidelines of the COP21 Summit, Earth Institute Director Jeffrey Sachs argued That institutional investors Would Eventually divest from carbon-linking Lithuania If They couldn’t react to political and regulatory efforts to halt climate change ” Every energy company in a pension fund ‘s portfolio needs to be scrutinized from purely a financial view of its future,’ Why is this [a company] we would like to hold a twenty – year period? If we continue to hold major energy companies-have That do not have an answer to basic financial test, we are just gambling. We-have to take a fiduciaryresponsibility – these are not good bets. ” [35]

Some US policymakers competed, notably Al Gore , insisting that “no agreement is perfect, and this one must be strengthened over time. [36]

Declarations of non-state parties

As is usual before such major conferences, major NGOs and groups of governments have drafted and published a wide variety of declarations. These include at least the following major efforts:

  • ICONI at its World Congress, launched the new Transformative Actions Program (TAP) to be local and subnational action ahead of COP21 [37] to build on its 2005 COP11 (Montreal summit) commitments, [38] Triple Bottom Line framework arising from that , and other local efforts.
    • On the road to COP 21 Declaration , adopted 26 March 2015 by “representatives of EU capitals and large cities of 28 EU Member States at the Mayors Meeting organized by Anne Hidalgo , Mayor of Paris, and Ignazio Marino , Mayor of Rome, who argues that “areas are exposed to climate change are also essential innovation testing areas”, [39] which is the focus of the ICLEI mechanisms, metrics and 2005 statement.
  • Private, corporate and private-public partnerships
    • At the World Summit of Regions for Climate (WSRC) in Paris 2014, Arnold Schwarzenegger , the Founder of R20 , invited a coalition of governments, businesses and investors to sign a “Paris Declaration” at World Climate Summit in Lima 2014, World Green Economy Summit 2015 in Dubai and COP21. [40]
    • The Shift project by French business organizations. [41]
  • Indigenous peoples efforts include:
    • Asian indigenous peoples declaration [42]
    • IPACC acting for African indigenous peoples [43] in particular but also worldwide [44]
    • A vast range of groups and peoples “seeking presence in post-2015” development, eg the Center for Autonomy and Development of Indigenous Peoples in Nicaragua [45]
    • Many indigenous polities and sovereignties seeking recognition under the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples [46] who asked for recognition and change in 2014 at the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Lima. [47] In 2015 this will include Those with specific grievances, eg the Wabanaki Confederacy in icts opposition to hydraulic fracturing and Energy East , Has annoncé it will send a diplomatic representative Regarding events in 2013 in New Brunswick That highlight highlighted the relative imbalance of power to resist fossil fuel corporations even on unceded lands:
      • “Canada is the home to 75% of the worlds [ sic ] mining corporations, and they have extended relative impunity in the Canadian Courts” – Winona LaDuke [48]
  • Women’s Earth and Climate Action Network “Sharing stories, struggles, solutions and action plans … [a] women’s climate justice mobilization” [49]
  • Countries of the Mediterranean Sea. Dam Bridge, Strait of Gibraltar, SA (PPEGSA). The first draft PresaPuente adapting to climate change is designed to protect the Mediterranean from the imminent rising waters caused by the polar thaw. More than 24 countries, over 500 million people, more than 15,000 islands and thousands of kilometers from coast to coast.
  • Solar alliance : Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi announced at the 2015 G-20 Summit that he, along with French President Francois Hollande , intends to create an alliance of solar-rich countries similar to theOrganization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). [50] [51] Ahead of the climate summit, the two leaders are invited to join the coalition in the International Agency for Solar Policy and Application (InSPA). [52]
  • A vast range of other activities [53] in preparation for influencing the major decisions at the conference.

Financing

Greenpeace activists, demanding 100% renewable energy at Climate March 2015 in Madrid.

The conference was budgeted to cost € 170m ( US $ 186.87m at the time). The French government said that EDF , Engie (formerly known as GDF Suez), Air France , Renault-Nissan and BNP Paribas . [54]

Demonstrations

Around the world, 600,000 took part in such events, as in the Global Climate March organized by 350.org (and other events such as Alternatiba, Village of Alternatives ). Paris had a ban on public gatherings in the wake of a recent terrorist attacks ( state of emergency ), but they have been a too-weak treaty. [55] There was also an illegal demonstration in Paris, including violent clashes between police and anarchists, and police arrested 317 people arrested. [56] [57]

See also

  • Environmental politics
  • IPCC Fifth Assessment Report
  • Paris Agreement
  • Politics of global warming
  • Post-Kyoto Protocol negotiations on greenhouse gas emissions
  • The Standing March

References

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