The 2011 United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP17) Was Held in Durban , South Africa, from 28 November to 11 December 2011 to suit les a new treaty to limit carbon emission. 
A treaty was not established, but the conference agreed to establish a legal binding deal of all countries by 2015, which was to take effect in 2020.  There was also progress regarding the creation of a Green Climate Fund for which a management framework was adopted. The fund is to distribute US $ 100 billion per year to help poor countries adapt to climate impacts. 
Maite Nkoana-Mashabane , president of the conference, declared it a success,  scientists and environmental groups warned that the deal was not enough to avoid global warmingbeyond 2 ° C as more urgent action is needed. 
The Conference Was officiellement Referred to as the 17th session of the Conference of the Parties (COP 17) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the 7th session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties ( CMP 7) to the Kyoto Protocol . In addition, the UNFCCC – the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA) and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI) – have been able to hold their 35th sessions. The 2010 United Nations Climate Change ConferenceWorking Group on the Kyoto Protocol (AWG-KP) and the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention (AWG-LCA) ) – so they were expected to meet as well.
A primary focus of the conference was the Kyoto Protocol’s first commitment period (2008-2012) was about to end.  It was also expected to focus on “Finalizing at least some of the Cancun Agreements”, attained at the 2010 Conference , such as “co-operation on clean technology “, as well as “forest protection, adaptation to climate impacts,” and finance – the promise of protecting forests, adapting to climate impacts, and “greening” their economies . 
A month before the Conference Began, the BBC highlight highlighted two contentious qui HAD beens Proposals Submitted – one by Russia , the other by Papua New Guinea , both, aiming to Amend the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change . Russia’s proposal  would bring about a “periodic review” of countries currently categorized as “poor” as “rich”, and thus obliged to shoulder greater obligations in the fight against climate change. BBC Environment correspond Richard Black commented that the proposal would be “provocative and explosive, if Russia pushes it”, because potentially affected countries,, would “push back very strongly”. Papua New Guinea’s proposal,  submitted by Ambassador Kevin Conrad with the support of Mexico , would introduce a “last resort” mechanism to break any deadlocks in climate change negotiations through a three-quarters vote, thus clarifying the decision-making process under the Convention. Describing the proposal as “intriguing”, Black noted that it would theoretically enable developing countries to use them in the world, and that they would still need the approval of the world. 
Xie Zhenhua , head of the Chinese delegation, stated that China was willing to make a binding commitment to a greenhouse gas company in the United States. of developing countries such as China and India. 
He said that he was concerned about the reluctance of developing nations to reduce their own greenhouse gas emissions.  He called on developing countries to provide financial and technical assistance to help countries fight against climate change . 
India ‘s representative at the conference, Jayanthi Natarajan stated that India “will not be intimidated. agreement to be weakness. ”  Natarajan Responded to European Union Climate Commissioner Connie Hedegaard , saying that: 
We have shown more flexibility than any other country. But equity is the centerpiece, it can not be shifted. This is not about India. Does the climate change mean we have to give up on equity? We have agreed to protocol and legal instrument. What’s the problem in having one more option? India will never be intimidated by any threat or any kind of pressure. What’s this legal instrument? How do I give a blank check? We’re talking about livelihoods and sustainability here. I’m not accusing anybody, but there are efforts to shift the (climate) problem to countries that have not contributed to it. If that is done, we’re willing to reopen the entire Durban Package. We did not issue a threat. But are we being made into a scapegoat? Please do not hold us hostage.
Bruce Campbell, Director of the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS), said it was astonishing that agriculture, one of the worst emitters of greenhouse gases.  “Leading agricultural groups, from farmers and researchers to policymakers and development organizations, have all come together to call on the negotiators to address the need for a work program on agriculture,” Campbell said. “Now, it is up to Negotiators to heed our joins call-to-actions and allow agriculture to play icts hand in building resilience Amongst vulnerable populations, helping farmers adapted to more unpredictable and extreme weather circumstances and mitigating future climate change.” [14 ]
Friends of the Earth
Nnimmo Bassey, Chairman of the Friends of the Earth International, said “delaying real action until 2020 is a crime of global proportions”. An increase in global temperatures of 4 degrees Celsius Island States, and the poor and vulnerable world. “This summit of the world’s apartheid is one of the most important things in the world. 
Greenpeace issued a statement calling on conference participants to ensure a high level of global emissions by 2015, continue the Kyoto Protocol and provide a mandate for a comprehensive legal binding instrument, deliver climate finance and set up a framework for protecting forests in developing countries. 
Anjali Appadurai, a college student at the College of the Atlantic in Maine and a member of the Youth Delegation, delivered a succinct speech that summed up the science of global warming and the failure of the UNFCCC Get it done! ” 
After two weeks of negotiations was reached on Sunday, December 11, after a 60-hour marathon-trading session. Negotiators agreed to be part of a legally binding treaty to address global warming. The terms of the future treaty are to be defined by 2015 and become effective in 2020.  The agreement, referred to as the “Durban Platform for Enhanced Action”, was notable in that for the first time China and India, which has been ratified by the Kyoto Protocol . 
The agreement entailed the continuation of the Kyoto protocol in the interim, only some of the countries of the United States of America. 
The terms of the Durban Platform have been set in motion by the Paris Accord at the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Paris , France .
- Green fund
The Green Climate Fund . The fund is to distribute US $ 100bn per year to help poor countries adapt to climate impacts. 
After the conference concluded, Michael Jacobs of the Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment in London, said: “The agreement here is not about the 4 ° C path we are … But by forcing countries for the first time to admit that their current policies are inadequate and it is likely that they will not be able to deal with climate change. , not national, voluntarism. ” 
Christiana Figueres , Executive Secretary of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change said: “I salute the countries who made this agreement. . ” 
Kumi Naidoo of Greenpeace International said: “We are in the middle of the global climate regime now that we are going to have a deal for a decade. 
US Senator Jim Inhofe , who opposes government energy regulations such as cap-and-trade and has called man-made climate change a hoax,  cheered what he called the setting aside of “any remote possibility of a global warming treaty” and described the conference outcome as “the complete collapse of the global warming movement and the failure of the Kyoto process”. Inhofe said that the message from Washington, from President Obama and the Democratic leadership of the US Senate, to the delegates of the conference that they are being ignored. 
German media criticized the outcome as “almost useless”, saying the pledges are vague and the timeline is slow, the main merit being kept alive. 
- 2012 United Nations Climate Change Conference
- Climate change mitigation
- Post-Kyoto Protocol negotiations on greenhouse gas emissions
- Jump up^ “Calendar” . UN Framework Convention on Climate Change . United Nations . Retrieved December 8, 2011 .
- ^ Jump up to:a b Harvey, Fiona; Vidal, John (11 December 2011). “Global climate change treaty after Durban breakthrough” . The Guardian . London . Retrieved 11 December 2011 .
- ^ Jump up to:a b c d Black, Richard (11 December 2011). “Climate talks end with late deal” . BBC News . Retrieved 11 December 2011 .
- Jump up^ Harvey, Fiona; Vidal, John (11 December 2011). “Durban deal will not warn catastrophic climate change, say scientists” . The Guardian . London . Retrieved 11 December 2011 .
- Jump up^ Carrington, Damian (14 December 2010). “Cancún deal leaves hard climatic tasks to Durban summit in 2011” . The Guardian Weekly . London . Retrieved 4 December 2011 .
- ^ Jump up to:a b Black, Richard (31 October 2011). “Durban: A summit of small steps?” . BBC News.
- Jump up^ “Proposal from the Russian Federation to amend article 4, paragraph 2 (f), of the Convention”
- Jump up^ “Proposal from Papua New Guinea and Mexico to amend Articles 7 and 18 of the Convention” Archived26 June 2013 at theWayback Machine.
- Jump up^ “China open to the talks on binding emission cut” . China Daily . Xinhua. December 5, 2011 . Retrieved December 8, 2011 .
- ^ Jump up to:a b Stephanie Ho (14 December 2011). “China Calls Canada’s Kyoto Protocol Withdrawal ‘Regrettable ‘ ” . Voice of America . Retrieved 14 June 2012 .
- ^ Jump up to:a b c Gerhardt, Tina (11 December 2011). “Get it Done! Youth to UN on Climate Treaty” . The Progressive . Madison.
- Jump up^ “India gets its way as climate summit in Durban closed” . Hindustan Times . New Delhi. Indo-Asian News Service. December 11, 2011 . Retrieved 13 December 2011 .
- Jump up^ Dardagan, Colleen. “Leaders need to focus on agriculture.” The Mercury. The Mercury Independent Online, Dec. 6, 2011. Web. 24 Feb. 2012.
- ^ Jump up to:a b ” Negotiations must deliver a work program is agriculture .” chimalaya.org. Climate Himalaya, Dec. 6, 2011. Web. 24 Feb. 2012.
- Jump up^ “Polluticians occupy the climate” (Press release). Greenpeace . November 23, 2011.
- Jump up^ UNFCCC: Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action (ADP), accessed online 2/8/2015
- Jump up^ Jacobs, Michael (1 December 2011). “Hope at last at the Durban conference on climate change” . The Guardian . London.
- ^ Jump up to:a b “Reaction to UN climate deal” . BBC News. December 11, 2011 . Retrieved 11 December 2011 .
- Jump up^ The Hill:Inhofe: ‘Laughable’ to call global warming a polar vortex factor. January 8, 2014.
- Jump up^ “Inhofe on Durban A Climate Conference: Kyoto Process Is Dead”(Press release). US Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works. December 7, 2011.
- Jump up^ Crossland, David (12 December 2011). “The Durban Climate Agreement ‘Is Almost Useless ‘ ” . Der Spiegel .