2010 United Nations Climate Change Conference

The 2010 United Nations Climate Change Conference was held in Cancun , Mexico , from 29 November to 10 December 2010. [1] The conference is officially referred to as the 16th session of the Conference of the Parties (COP 16) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the 6th session of the Conference of the Parties to the Meeting of the Parties (CMP 6) to the Kyoto Protocol . In addition, the UNFCCC – the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA) and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI) – held their 33rd sessions. Tea2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference Working Group on the Kyoto Protocol (AWG-KP) and the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention (AWG-LCA), and they put it as well.

Background

Following the non-binding Copenhagen Accord may be expected in 2009, international expectations for the COP16 conference were reduced. [2] Four preparatory rounds of negotiations were held during 2010. The first three of these were in Bonn , Germany , from 9 to 11 April, 1 to 11 June (in with the 32nd sessions of SBSTA and SBI), and 2 to 6 August. The Bonn talks were reported as ending in failure. [3] [4] [5] The fourth round of talks in Tianjin , China , made in the US and China. [6] [7] [8]The Ambo Declaration Was adopté at the Tarawa Climate Change Conference on the 10th November 2010 by Australia , Brazil , China , Cuba , Fiji , Japan , Kiribati, Maldives , Marshall Islands , New Zealand , Solomon Islands and Tonga . It calls for more and immediate action, and is slated to be presented at COP 16.

Expectations

Secretary-General of the United Nations Ban Ki-moon addresses the lobby

In August 2010, Ban Ki-moon said that it would be a “global agreement, comprehensive deal,” rather than incremental steps might come. [9]

After the Tianjin talks in October Christiana Figueres , Executive Secretary of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), said, “This week, we are in the middle of the future. greatest societal and economic transformation that the world has ever seen. “

Other commentators spoke of a positive spirit of negotiation in Cancun. [10]

Outcome

The outcome of the summit is an agreement adopted by the states’ parties that called for a wide ” Green Climate Fund “, and a “Climate Technology Center” and network. It looked forward to a second commitment period for the Kyoto Protocol.

The agreement recognizes that an urgent and potentially irreversible threat to human societies and the planet, which needs to be urgently addressed by all parties. It affirms that climate change is one of the greatest challenges of our time and that all parties must share a vision for a long-term cooperative action in order to achieve the objective of the Convention, including the achievement of a global goal. It is recognized that it is scientifically verified that it is most likely to increase in the world as a result of the increase in gas concentrations, as assessed by the IPCC in its Fourth Assessment. Report.

The agreement is more important than ever before, but it is important to understand that it is necessary to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to a global temperature of 2 ° C above pre-industrial levels. action to meet this long-term goal, consistent with science and on the basis of equity; Regeneration in the context of the first review, a global temperature increase of 1.5 ° C. The agreement also requires a shift towards a low-carbon society .

The agreement calls on rich countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions in the Copenhagen Accord , and for developing countries to reduce their emissions.

A 40-nation “transition committee” was made up of the end of March 2011, but it was deferred until late April amidst squabbles among Latin American countries and the Asia bloc about who should be on the committee. The committee is due to present a complete plan for the fund by the next climate conference in South Africa starting in November, 2011. [11]

Adaptation

The Conference on the Adaptation Framework and the Adaptation Committee, and it invites Parties to strengthen and, where necessary, establish regional adaptation centers and networks.

Mitigation

Developed countries should submit annual greenhouse gas inventories and inventories and biennial reports on their progress. It agrees that it will be developed nationally in the context of sustainable development, supported and enabled by technology, financing and capacity-building, as well as in terms of achieving a reduction in emissions related to ” business as usual ” emissions in 2020. It Decides to set up a registry to record Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions international media and seeking to Facilitate matching of finance, technology and capacity-building to supporting thesis shares. Once support has been provided they are calledInternationally supported mitigation actions (ISMAs), which will be subject to international measurement, reporting and verification .

Finance

It takes place in the international community, approaching US $ 30 billion for the period 2010–2012 and in the context of meaningful mitigation $ 100 billion per year by 2020 to address the needs of developing countries.

It decides to establish a Green Climate Fund, to be designated as an operating entity of the financial mechanism of the Convention. Also decided that the Fund will be governed by a board of 24 members; the trustee shall administer the assets of the Green Climate Fund for the purpose of, and in accordance with, the relevant decisions of the Green Climate Fund Board.

The conference establishes a Standing Committee under the Conference of the Parties to assist the Conference of the Parties in exercising its functions with respect to the financial mechanism

Technology

In technology development and transfer, a Technology Mechanism , which will consist of a Technology Executive Committee and a Climate Technology Center and Network. The Climate Technology Center and the Network and the Technology Executive Committee will report on this issue of coherence and synergy. The Technology Executive Committee shall have further implementation of the framework of the Convention ( technology transfer framework ) and Committee shall include 20 expert members. The Climate Technology Center shall facilitate a network of national, regional, sectoral and international technology networks, organizations and initiatives

Capacity-building

It reaffirms that capacity-building is essential to enabling the implementation of climate change, and to implementing their commitments under the Convention.

Kyoto Protocol

The Outcome of the Work of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Further Commitments for Annex I Parties under the Kyoto Protocol at its fifteenth session:

  • Recognizing that the contribution of the Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC , to achieve the lowest levels would require Annex I as a group to reduce emissions in a range of 25-40 percent 1990 1990 by 2020 (close to the 51% reduction in a low-carbon society ).
  • Urges Annex I Parties to raise the level of ambition of the emission reductions to be achieved.
  • In the second commitment period, the base year shall be 1990.
  • The global warming potential will be provided by the IPCC.

Reactions

The agreement includes a “Green Climate Fund,” proposed to be worth $ 100 billion a year by 2020, to assist in reducing emissions. [12] There was no agreement on how to extend the Kyoto Protocol, or how the $ 100 billion a year for the Green Climate Fund would be raised, or whether developing countries would have reduced emissions. . [13] Reuters Environment Corresponds Alister Doyle reported that to more delegates, though they approved it, the agreement “fell woefully short of action needed.” [14]

The New York Times Described the agreement as being white Both a “major step forward” given That international negotiations HAD stumbled in recent years, and as being “fairly modest” as It Did not require the exchange That scientists say are needed to AVOID dangerous climate change . [15] John Vidal, writing in The Guardian , criticized the Cancun Agreements for the Provision of Leadership, for Not Specifying the Proposed Climate Fund, and for not stating that countries had “peaked” their emissions within 10 years and then rapidly reducing them for there to be any chance to war warming. Also criticized were the deferral of decisions on the legal form and the level of emission reductions required. [16]Professor Kevin Anderson described the Cancun agreement as “astrology” and stated that the science was suggesting a 4 ° C rise in global mean temperature, possibly as early as the 2060s. [17]

See also

  • Bali Road Map
  • Climate Vulnerable Forum
  • Copenhagen Accord
  • Debate over China’s economic responsibilities for climate change mitigation
  • Joint Implementation
  • Politics of global warming
  • Post-Kyoto Protocol negotiations on greenhouse gas emissions
  • Tarawa Climate Change Conference
  • World People’s Conference on Climate Change
  • 2011 United Nations Climate Change Conference
  • Avoiding dangerous climate change

References

  1. Jump up^ “Dates and Comings of Future Sessions” (PDF) . Retrieved 2010-10-13.
  2. Jump up^ AP, Google News (November 20, 2010). “As world warms, negotiators give talks another try” . The Associated Press . Retrieved 20 November2010 .
  3. Jump up^ Vidal, John (2010-08-06). “Climate talks in danger of unraveling as China and US clash” . The Guardian . London. Archived from the original on 12 October 2010 . Retrieved 2010-10-14 .
  4. Jump up^ Vidal, John (2010-08-09). “A climate talks are stuck in the mud” . The Guardian . London . Retrieved 2010-10-14 .
  5. Jump up^ Vogel, Toby (2010-09-08). “Climate talks going ‘backwards’, EU says”. EuropeanVoice.com . Economist Group . Archived from the original on 29 October 2010 . Retrieved 2010-10-14 .
  6. Jump up^ “US-China Deadlock Dims Climate Talk Prospects” . New York Times. Associated Press. 2010-10-09. Archived from the original on June 24, 2012 . Retrieved 2010-10-14 .
  7. Jump up^ Watts, Jonathan (2010-10-08). “Climate tensions resurface as US clashes with China” . Sydney Morning Herald . Archived from the original on 10 October 2010 . Retrieved 2010-10-14 .
  8. Jump up^ Harrabin, Roger (2010-10-09). “A climate talks in China end without breakthrough” . BBC News . Archived from the original on 14 October 2010 . Retrieved 2010-10-14 .
  9. Jump up^ MacFarquhar, Neil (2010-08-09). “UN Chief Recommends Small Steps on Climate” . New York Times . Retrieved 2010-09-24 .
  10. Jump up^ Watts, Jonathan (2010-10-09). “Climate deal is closer, says UN envoy, despite China and US locking horns” . The Guardian . London. Archived from the original on 11 October 2010 . Retrieved 10 October2010 .
  11. Jump up^ “next climate conference in South Africa” . Retrieved 2 April 2011 . dead link ]
  12. Jump up^ Sweet, Cassandra (2010-12-11). “Nations Approve Cancun Climate Package” . The Wall Street Journal . Archived from the original on 4 February 2011 . Retrieved 2011-01-08 .
  13. Jump up^ Blinch, Russell; Buckley, Chris (2010-12-12). “Climate talks end with modest steps, no Kyoto deal” . Reuters . Archived from the original on 26 January 2011 . Retrieved 2010-12-17 .
  14. Jump up^ Doyle, Alister (2010-12-17). “Analysis: Climate talks: 18 years, too little action?” . Reuters . Retrieved 2011-01-08 .
  15. Jump up^ Embroider, John M (2010-12-11). “Climate Talks End With Modest Deal on Emissions” . New York Times . Archived from the original on May 12, 2011 . Retrieved 2010-12-12 .
  16. Jump up^ Vidal, John (2010-12-13). “Does the Cancún agreement show climate leadership?” . The Guardian . London . Retrieved 2010-12-15 .
  17. Jump up^ Anderson, Kevin (15 December 2010). “Kevin Anderson’s Response to Cancun” . Tyndall Center for Climate Change Research . Retrieved 4 December 2012 . After eighteen years it can be said to have all the astrology and turn directly to the numbers and the science to inform policy.

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