United Nations Climate Change conference

The United Nations Climate Change Conferences are held in the framework of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). They serve as the formal meeting of the UNFCCC Parties ( Conference of the Parties , COP) to for Assessment progress in dealing with climate change , and Beginning in the mid-1990s, to negotiate the Kyoto Protocol to suit les Legally binding obligations for Developed Countries to Reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. [1] From 2005 the Conference also served as the “Conference of the Parties Serving the Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol” (CMP); [2]also parties to the Convention that are not parties to the Protocol can participate in Protocol-related meetings as observers. From 2011 the meetings have been made to negotiate the Paris Agreement as part of the Durban platform activities until its conclusion in 2015, which created a general path towards climate action.

The first UN Climate Change Conference was held in 1995 in Berlin . [3] [4]

1995: COP 1, Berlin, Germany

The first UNFCCC Conference of the Parties took place from 28 March to 7 April 1995 in Berlin , Germany . The BSTA and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI). COP 1 agreed on “Activities Implemented Jointly”, first joint measures in international climate action. [3] [4]

1996: COP 2, Geneva, Switzerland

COP 2 took place in July 1996 in Geneva, Switzerland . [5] Its ministerial declaration Was Noted (but not adopté) is 18 July 1996 and reflected a United States position statement presented by Timothy Wirth , form Under Secretary for Global Affairs for the United States Department of State At That meeting, qui: [ 6] [7]

  1. Accepted the scientific findings on climate change by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in its second assessment (1995);
  2. Rejected uniform “harmonized policies” in favor of flexibility;
  3. Called for “legally binding mid-term targets”.

1997: COP 3, The Kyoto Protocol on Climate Change

COP 3 took place in December 1997 in Kyoto , Japan . After intensive negotiations, it adopted the Kyoto Protocol, which outlined the greenhouse gas emissions reduction obligation for the United States. Most industrialized countries and some central European economies in transition (Agreements to be ratified by the United States) budget period. The United States would be required to reduce its total emissions an average of 7% 1990 levels; however Congress did not ratify the treaty after Clinton signed it. The Bush administration explicitly rejected the protocol in 2001.

1998: COP 4, Buenos Aires, Argentina

Main article: 1998 United Nations Climate Change Conference

COP 4 took place in November 1998 in Buenos Aires . It had been expected that the remaining issues would be finalized at this meeting. However, the complexity and difficulty of finding agreement on these issues is insurmountable, and instead the parties adopted a 2-year “Plan of Action” to advance efforts and to currency mechanisms for implementing the Kyoto Protocol, to be completed by 2000. During COP4 , Argentina and Kazakhstan, the first two non-Annex countries to do so.

1999: COP 5, Bonn, Germany

COP 5 took place between 25 October and 5 November 1999, in Bonn , Germany . It was primarily a technical meeting, and did not reach major conclusions.

2000: COP 6, The Hague, Netherlands

COP 6 took place on 13-25 November 2000, in The Hague , Netherlands. The discussions evolved rapidly into a major-level negotiation over the major political issues. These included major controversy over the United States ‘proposal to allow credit for carbon sinks’ in forests and agricultural lands that would satisfy a major proportion of the US emissions reductions in this way; disagreements over consequences for non-compliance by countries that do not meet their emission reduction targets; and difficulties in resolving the effects of climate change. In the final hours of COP 6, despite some compromises agreed between the United States and some EU countries, notably the United Kingdom, the EU countries as a whole,Jan Pronk , President of COP 6, suspended COP-6 without agreement, with the expectation that negotiations would later resume. [8] It was later announced that the COP 6 meetings (termed “COP 6 bis”) would be resumed in Bonn , Germany , in the second half of July. The next scheduled meeting of the parties to the UNFCCC, COP 7, had been set for Marrakech, Morocco , in October-November 2001.

2001: COP 6, Bonn, Germany

COP 6 negotiations resumed on 17-27 July 2001, in Bonn , Germany , with little progress made in resolving the differences that had produced an impasse in The Hague. However, this meeting took place after George W. Bush had become President of the United States and had rejected the Kyoto Protocol in March 2001; United States delegation to this meeting to the Protocol and to the role of observing at the meeting. As the other parties negotiated the key issues, the most important political issues, to the surprise of the most observers, given the low expectations that preceded the meeting. The agreements included:

  1. Flexible mechanisms : The “flexibility mechanisms” which the United States had strongly favored when the Protocol was initially put together, including emissions trading, Joint Implementation (JI), and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) which allows industrialized countries to fund emissions reduction activities. in developing countries as an alternative to domestic emission reductions. One of the key elements of this agreement is that it would be a significant component of the approach to address these issues.
  2. Carbon sinks : It was agreed that it would be granted that it would be granted for carbon dioxide, and that it would be possible to reclaim it from the atmosphere, including forest and cropland management, and re-vegetation, with no over-all cap claim for sinks activities. In the case of forest management, an appendix of countries. Thus, a cap of 13 million tones could be credited to Japan (which represents about 4% of its base-year emissions). For cropland management, countries could receive credit for carbon sequestration increases above 1990 levels.
  3. Compliance: Final action on compliance procedures and mechanisms that would have not been complied with Protocol 7, but included broad outlines of consequences for failing to meet emissions that would include a requirement to “make up” shortfalls at 1.3 tons to 1, suspension of the right to sell credits for surplus emissions reductions, and a required compliance action plan for those not meeting their targets.
  4. Financing: There is a need for a change in the financing of climate change: (1) (2) a least-developed-country fund to support National Adaptation Programs of Action; and (3) Kyoto Protocol adaptation fund supported by CDM levy and voluntary contributions.

A number of operational details awaiting these decisions are still negotiated and agreed upon, and these are the major issues considered by the COP 7 meeting that followed.

2001: COP 7, Marrakech, Morocco

Main article: 2001 United Nations Climate Change Conference

At the COP 7 meeting in Marrakech , Morocco from 29 October to 10 November 2001, negotiators wrapped up the work on the Buenos AiresPlan of Action, finalizing most of the operational details and setting the stage for nations to ratify the Kyoto Protocol. The Agreed package of decisions is known. The United States delegation maintained its role, declining to participate actively in the negotiations. Other parts continued to express hope that the United States would re-engage in the process of achieving ratification of the Kyoto Protocol by the number of countries required to ratify it. accounting for 55% of developed-country emissions of carbon dioxide in 1990). The date of the World Summit on Sustainable Development (August-September 2002) was put forward to a target by the Kyoto Protocol into force. TeaWorld Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) was held in Johannesburg , South Africa .

The main decisions at COP 7 included:

  • Operational rules for international emissions trading between parties to the Protocol and for the CDM and joint implementation;
  • A compliance regime, which has the following consequences for failure to meet the targets of the Protocol.
  • Accounting procedures for the flexibility mechanisms;
  • A decision to consider at COP 8 how to achieve a review of the adequacy of commitments that could lead to discussions on future commitments by developing countries.

2002: COP 8, New Delhi, India

Main article: 2002 United Nations Climate Change Conference

Taking place from 23 October to 1 November 2002, in New Delhi COP 8 adopted the Delhi Ministerial Declaration [9] that, among others, called for efforts by developing countries to reduce the impact of climate change on developing countries. It is also approved by the New Delhi work program [10] [11] [12] [13] on Article 6 of the Convention. [14]The COP8 was flagged by Russia’s hesitation, stating that it needed more time to think it over. The Kyoto Protocol could enter into force. It was ratified by 55 countries, including countries responsible for 55 percent of the world’s 1990 carbon dioxide emissions. With the United States (36.1 per cent of world-carbon dioxide) and Australia refusing ratification, Russia’s agreement (17% of total emissions in 1990) was required to meet the ratification criteria. [15] [16]

2003: COP 9, Milan, Italy

Main article: 2003 United Nations Climate Change Conference

COP 9 took place on 1-12 December 2003 in Milan . The parties agreed to use the Adaptation Fund established at COP7 in 2001 primarily in the context of better climate change. The fund would also be used for capacity-building through technology transfer. At COP9, the non-Annex I countries.

2004: COP 10, Buenos Aires, Argentina

Main article: 2004 United Nations Climate Change Conference

COP 10 took place on 6-17 December 2004.

COP10 discussed the progress made since the first Conference of the Parties 10 years ago and its future challenges, with special emphasis on climate change mitigation and adaptation. To promote developing countries, the Buenos Aires Plan of Action [17] was adopted. The parties also began discussing the post-Kyoto mechanism, when the first commitment period ends.

2005: COP 11 / CMP 1, Montreal, Canada

Main article: 2005 United Nations Climate Change Conference

COP 11 (or COP 11 / CMP 1) took place between 28 November and 9 December 2005, in Montreal , Quebec , Canada. It was the first Meeting of the Parties (CMP 1) to the Kyoto Protocol since their initial meeting in Kyoto in 1997. It was one of the largest intergovernmental conferences on climate change ever. The event marked the entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol. Hosting more than 10,000 delegates, it was one of Canada’s largest international events and the largest gathering in Montreal since Expo 67 . The Montreal Action Plan was an agreement to “extend the life of the Kyoto Protocol beyond its 2012 expiration date and negotiate deeper cuts in greenhouse gas emissions”. [18]Stéphane Dion , Canada’s environment minister, at the time, provides a map for the future. [19] [20]

2006: COP 12 / CMP 2, Nairobi, Kenya

Main article: 2006 United Nations Climate Change Conference

COP 12 / CMP 2 took place on 6-17 November 2006 in Nairobi, Kenya . At the meeting, BBC reporter Richard Black coined the phrase “climate tourists” to describe some delegates who attended “to see Africa, take snows of the wildlife, the poor, dying African children and women”. Black also noted that it was possible to avoid any problems of competitiveness and the possibility of losing competitiveness. Black concluded that was a disconnect between the political process and the scientific imperative. [21]Despite such criticism, some strides have been made at COP12, including in the areas of support for developing countries and clean development mechanisms. The parties adopted a five-year plan of work to support climate change adaptation by developing countries, and agreed on the procedures and modalities for the Adaptation Fund. They also agreed to improve the projects for clean development mechanism.

2007: COP 13 / CMP 3, Bali, Indonesia

Main article: 2007 United Nations Climate Change Conference

COP 13 / CMP 3 took place on December 3-17, 2007, at Nusa Dua , Bali , Indonesia . Agreement on a timeline and structured negotiation on the post-2012 framework (the end of the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol) was achieved with the adoption of the Bali Action Plan (Decision 1 / CP.13). The Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention ( AWG-LCA ) was established as a new subsidiary of the United States in 2012. Decision 9 / CP. 13 is an Amended to the New Delhi work program. [22] These negotiations took place during 2008 (leading to COP 14 / CMP 4 in Poznan, Poland) and 2009 (leading to COP 15 / CMP 5 in Copenhagen).

2008: COP 14 / CMP 4, Poznań, Poland

Main article: 2008 United Nations Climate Change Conference

COP 14 / CMP 4 took place on 1-12 December 2008 in Poznań , Poland . [23] Delegates agreed on principles for the financing of a financing to aid countries with the effects of climate change. [24]

Negotiations on the Kyoto Protocol were the primary focus of the conference.

2009: COP 15 / CMP 5, Copenhagen, Denmark

Main article: 2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference

COP 15 took place in Copenhagen , Denmark , on 7-18 December 2009.

The overall goal for the COP 15 / CMP 5 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Denmark is a global agreement for the Kyoto protocol expires. However, on the 14th of November 2009, the New York Times announced that “President Obama and other world leaders have reached the challenge of reaching a climate change agreement. a less specific “politically binding” agreement that would punt the most difficult issues into the future “. [25]Ministers and officials from 192 countries took part in the Copenhagen meeting and in addition there were participants from a large number of civil society organizations. As many Annexes 1 industrialized countries are now reluctant to fulfill commitments under the Kyoto Protocol, a large part of the diplomatic work that the foundation for a post-Kyoto agreement was undertaken up to the COP15.

The conference did not achieve a binding agreement for long-term action. A 13-paragraph ‘political agreement’ was negotiated by approximately 25 parties including US and China, but it was only ‘noted’ by the COP as it is considered an external document, not negotiated within the UNFCCC process. [26] The agreement was notable that it would be $ 30 billion for the period 2010-2012. Longer-term climate financing options we MENTIONED in the agreement are being white Discussed dans le UN Secretary General’s High Level Advisory Group on Climate Financing, which is due to report in November 2010. The negotiations on extending the Kyoto Protocol had a long-term cooperative action. The working groups on these tracks to the negotiations are now in place in COP 16 and CMP 6 in Mexico.

2010: COP 16 / CMP 6, Cancun, Mexico

Main article: 2010 United Nations Climate Change Conference

COP 16 was held in Cancun , Mexico , from 28 November to 10 December 2010. [27] [28]

The outcome of the summit is an agreement adopted by the states’ parties that called for the 100 billion USD per annum ” Green Climate Fund “, and a “Climate Technology Center” and network. However, the funding of the Green Climate Fund was not agreed upon. Nor was a commitment to a second period of the Kyoto Protocol , but it was concluded that the 1990 and the global warming potentials will be provided by the IPCC.

All parties ” Recognizing that climate change is an urgent and potentially irreversible threat to human societies and the planet, and thus requires urgently addressed by all Parties, “. It recognizes the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report goal of a maximum 2 ° C global warming and all parties should take urgent action to meet this goal. It aussi Agreed upon greenhouse gas emission shoulds peak as soon as possible, aim Recognizing que le time frame for peaking will be along in developing countries, since social and economic development and poverty eradication are the first and overriding Priorities of Developing Countries .

2011: COP 17 / CMP 7, Durban, South Africa

Main article: 2011 United Nations Climate Change Conference

The 2011 COP 17 was held in Durban, South Africa , from 28 November to 9 December 2011. [27] [29]

The conference has Agreed to start negotiations was Legally binding deal comprenant all countries, to be adopté in 2015, governing the period post 2020. [30] There Was aussi progress Regarding the establishment of a Green Climate Fund (GCF) for a qui management framework was adopted. The fund is to distribute US $ 100 billion per year to help poor countries adapt to climate impacts. [31]

While President of the Conference, Maite Nkoana-Mashabane , declared it a success, [31] scientists and environmental groups warned that the deal was not enough to avoid global warming beyond 2 ° C as more urgent action is needed. [32]

2012: COP 18 / CMP 8, Doha, Qatar

Main article: 2012 United Nations Climate Change Conference

Qatar hosted COP 18 which took place in Doha , Qatar, from 26 November to 7 December 2012. [33] [34] The Conference produced a package of documents collectively titled The Doha Climate Gateway . [35] The documents collectively contained:

  1. The Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol (http://www.wto.org/english/index.html) , Ukraine, New Zealand (United States and Canada, United States and Canada), India and Brazil are not subject to emissions reductions under the Kyoto Protocol. [36]
  2. Language on loss and damage, formalized for the first time in the conference documents. clarification needed ]

The conference made little progress towards the funding of the Green Climate Fund . [37]

Russia, Belarus and Ukraine OBJECTED at the end of the session, clarification needed ] As They Had a right to under the session’s rules. In closing the conference, the President said that he would note these objections in his final report. [37]

2013: COP 19 / CMP 9, Warsaw, Poland

Main article: 2013 United Nations Climate Change Conference

COP 19 was the 19th annual session of the Conference of the Parties (COP) to the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the 9th Session of the Meeting of the Parties (CMP) to the 1997 Kyoto Protocol (the protocol having been developed under the UNFCCC’s charter). The conference was held in Warsaw , Poland from 11 to 23 November 2013. [38]

2014: COP 20 / CMP 10, Lima, Peru

Main article: 2014 United Nations Climate Change Conference

On 1-12 December 2014, Lima , Peru hosted the 20th annual session of the Conference of the Parties (COP) to the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the 10th meeting of the Meeting of the Parties (CMP) to the 1997 Kyoto Protocol (the protocol having been developed under the UNFCCC’s charter). The pre-conference was held in Venezuela. [39]

2015: COP 21 / CMP 11, Paris, France

Main articles: 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference and Paris Agreement

The COP 21 was held in Paris from 30 November to 12 December 2015. [40] [41] Negotiations resulted in the adoption of the Paris Agreement on 12 December, leading to change in climate change. of the Durban platform, established during COP17. The agreement will enter into force (and thus become fully effective) on November 4, 2016. On October 4, 2016 the threshold for adoption is reached with over 55 countries representing at least 55% of the world’s greenhouse gas emissions ratifying the Agreement. [42]

2016: COP 22 / CMP 12 / CMA 1, Marrakech, Morocco

Main article: 2016 United Nations Climate Change Conference

COP 22 was held in Marrakech , in the North-African country of Morocco , on 7-18 November 2016. [43] A focal issue of COP 22 is that of water scarcity , water cleanliness, and water-related sustainability , a major problem in the developing world , including many african states. Charafat Afailal, Morocco Minister of the Environment in Charge of Water and Aziz Mekouar, COP 22 Ambassador for Multilateral Negotiations. [44] Another focal issue was the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and uses low-carbon energy sources. Mr. Peter Thompson, President of the UN General Assembly, called for the transformation of the global economy in all sectors to achieve a low emissions global economy. [45] [46]

2017: COP 23 / CMP 13 / CMA 2, Bonn, Germany

COP 23 is expected to be held on November 6-17, 2017. On Friday, November 18, 2016, the end of COP 22, the Chairperson of COP 23 from Fiji announced that it will be held in Bonn , Germany . (COP 23 / CMP 13). [41]

Fijian Prime Minister and incoming President of COP 23, Frank Bainimarama, on 13 April, launched the United Nations Climate Change Conference, to be held at UN Campus, Bonn in November. [47]

2018: COP 24 / CMP 14 / CMA 3, Katowice, Poland

COP 24 is expected to be held on 3-14 December [47] 2018 in Katowice , Poland . (COP 24 / CMP 14). [41]

2019: COP 25 / CMP 15 / CMA 4

COP 25 is expected to be held in 2019. (COP 25 / CMP 15). [41]

See also

  • United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
  • Action for climate empowerment

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