The 2008 United Nations Climate Change Conference took place at the PIF Congress Center, Poznan International Fair (PIF), in Poznań , Poland , between December 1 and December 12, 2008.  Representatives from over 180 countries attended along with observers from intergovernmental nongovernmental organizations.
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP 14) and the 4th Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (MOP 4 or CMP 4). Subsidiaries of these bodies, including the fourth session of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention (AWG-LCA 4), resumed session of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Further Commitments for Annex I Kyoto Protocol (AWG-KP 6), and the twenty-second session of the Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI 29), and the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA 29). 
History of Climate Change
Since the late 1800s, the surface of the earth has had an increase of 0.6 ° C in global temperatures.  The earth historically has experienced periods of global growth. For example, around 2 million BC the surface temperature of the earth is estimated to be 5 ° C warmer than today.  While thesis Increased temperature as a result of the natural warming and cooling of the earth, current Increases in global temperature are Attributed To Increasing water equivalent of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Greenhouse gases have grown since the late 19th century due to the industrialization of nations worldwide.  Examples of greenhouse gases includecarbon dioxide , methane , nitrous oxide , and hydro-fluorocarbons .  While each of these has a significant impact on the effects of greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide is considered to be the most important factor in the global carbon dioxide output. 
The levels of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases have increased dramatically since the late 19th century.  Until the late 1970s, scientists were unable to determine the level of growth. However, since then, scientists have recognized that the Earth is unable to afford the increasing levels of carbon dioxide naturally through the carbon cycle .  As a result, excessive levels of carbon dioxide trap heat in the earth’s atmosphere and cause global warming .  The global warming of the earth ‘s surface is changing its effects, including the melting of polar ice caps, increasing sea levels, droughts, storms, and floods.
Previous Climate Change Action
The first World Climate Conference was held by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) in 1979 in Geneva, Switzerland. The conference established that “continued expansion of man’s activities on earth can cause significant extended regional and even global changes in climate”.  The WMO established the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 1988 to provide a source of “objective information” on global climate change.  Then in 1992, 154 nations signed the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change(FCCC), which aims to reduce emission levels in industrialized nations. The FCCC is a set of principles and does not bind a country to specific standards. Primarily, the FCCC seeks to “establish a set of principles, norms, and goals” among nations.  In 1997, 159 nations signed the Kyoto Protocol . The Kyoto Protocol carries a legal obligation for nations to uphold specific standards in the reduction of greenhouse gases and emissions. The Kyoto Protocol defines countries as being “Annex 1 parts” or “non-Annex 1 parts”.  Annex 1 parts are industrialized nations while non-Annex 1 refers to developing nations.
Issues with the FCCC and Kyoto Protocol
The FCCC sought to achieve a lower level of emissions in 1990. However, the convention did not specify As a result, of the 154 nations that signed the FCCC, only 50 things to ratify the standards set by convention. Additionally, the FCCC failed to include emissions resulting from aviation and shipping under the standards set by convention. 
The Kyoto Protocol mainly affects the production of greenhouse gases and not consumption. For example, a nation may import high carbon goods such as steel or aluminum, but still have a relatively low output of greenhouse gases.  The Kyoto Protocol places large amounts of pressure on Annex 1 nations to reduce their emissions. Annex 1 nations face harsher goals of emission reduction compared to non-Annex 1 nations. The Kyoto Protocol also establishes carbon emission caps that create a market for industrialized nations and their ability to produce and consume goods.
Focuses of the Conference
Negotiations on the Kyoto Protocol were the primary focus of the conference. Management of the Adaptation Fund has been established during the course of the conference.  Delegates from countries varying, suggéré Increasing the levy of 2% on certified emission reductions to 3% in order to Provide the fund with additional money Would That helped Developing Countries in Establishing protection from natural disasters and Droughts. Another significant outcome Was Addressed carbon capture and storage – whether it SPECIFICALLY shoulds be Implemented as a pilot program or if it shoulds be incorporated as a share of theclean development mechanism . 
The International Atomic Energy Agency presented information about the role of nuclear energy in reducing the effect of climate change . Holger Rogner, head of the IAEA’s Planning and Economic Studies Section and lead IAEA delegate at the conference, reasoned in his presentation that uses of nuclear power produces green fossil fuels, such as fossil fuels . The IAEA introduced their newest publication entitled Climate Change and Nuclear Power 2008 to the delegates in attendance. The book focuses on the benefits of nuclear power in climate change mitigation as well as addressing potential fuel supply, safety, and security concerns. 
At the time of the 2008 United Nations Climate Change Conference, over 650 international scientists expressed doubts about the claims made about global climate change by scientists of the United Nations, which have published papers providing evidence of climate change, such as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2007 Summary for Policymakers.  Arguments exist over how sensitive our climate is to increasing levels of Carbon Dioxide. According to the International Policy Network (IPN), there is no need for such a situation. 
Canada was singled out as a country at the conference. In a comparison of countries’ climate change performance, Canada is ranked next to last in their climate change. Canada’s lack of regulations for Alberta Tar Sands, the largest source of greenhouse gases in the country, brought to criticism of the Canadian government and its lack of greenhouse reduction targets. 
According to multiple 1998 nationwide polls, the United States public viewed global warming as a “real problem that requires action”.  In July 1997 the Senate passed Senate Resolution 98 that would not ratify any treaty imposing mandatory greenhouse gas tax cuts, or that would pose serious harm in the economy.  Despite a general American concern about climate change, it is important to note that the opinions of Americans in this regard are “hoax, or” alarmists with extreme perceptions to naysayers “. 
Varying opinions on the success of the conference by various media publications from a multitude of countries in attendance. The conference is mainly focused on planning for the conference in Copenhagen.  At the concluding of the conference, delegate access from all of the parts in attendance Agreed to submit national Their reduction targets and Measures for 2020 by mid February 2009.  Delegates made progress is discussing how to Effectively transfer environment-friendly technology to Developing countries and concurred que le need to Reduce deforestation hAS atteint a level of urgency. 
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