2016 United Nations Climate Change Conference

The 2016 United Nations Climate Change Conference is an international meeting of political leaders and activists to discuss environmental issues. It was held in Marrakech, Morocco on November 7-18, 2016. The conference is the twenty-second Conference of the Parties ( COP22 ), the twelfth meeting of the parties for the Kyoto Protocol ( CMP12 ), and the first meeting of the parties for the Paris Agreement ( CMA1 ). The aim of the conference is to discuss and implement the Paris Agreement is underway. [1]Participants work together with global solutions to climate change .

The conference was presided over by Salaheddine Mezouar , the Moroccan Minister for Foreign Affairs and Cooperation . [2] Approximately 20,000 participants were expected to wait.

On May 2, 2016, GL events events signed the service contract. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations also supports its preparation for COP 22 “.


United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

The participants in the conference are members of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change ( UNFCCC ). The aim of this convention is to prevent “dangerous human interference with the climate system”. [3] It is related to étroitement Both the UN Convention on Biological Diversity and the Convention to Combat Desertification ; Rio conventions were adopted at the Rio Earth Summit in 1992. There are 7 steps that the UNFCCC lists as a “summary of the convention”. [3]

  1. The problem of climate change is recognized as a threat to human safety.
  2. Greenhouse gas emissions, especially in industrialized countries, must be reduced and countries are pressured to reduce emissions.
  3. Advanced countries must take action to reduce emissions and lead the way for developing nations.
  4. Advanced countries will help developing nations by providing financial and technical support.
  5. Both advanced and developing countries submit reports on climate change and greenhouse gas emissions.
  6. In developing countries, the growth of greenhouse gas emissions is increasing.
  7. In order to increase the quality of life in the presence of climate change,

The Kyoto Protocol

The Marrakesh Conference is a continuation of international global summits organized by United Nations following the Kyoto Protocol . The Kyoto Protocol was written in 1997 at COP3, but was not officially adopted until February 16, 2005. [4] It was in effect from 2008 to 2012. There are three main mechanisms that can be used to help reduce emissions: international emissions trading, clean development mechanisms, and joint implementation. [5]

The Protocol is also meant to assist countries in adapting to the conditions of climate change. Additionally, the UN Climate Change Secretariat receives reports from parties, verified transactions, and holds parties accountable. The UNFCC considers the Kyoto Protocol a “first step” to climate change resistance. [5]

The Paris Agreement

The Paris Agreement aims to prevent the rise of global temperatures. This is regulated by reports by the Parties, designed to increase transparency of actions taken by both developing nations and advanced ones. It also has measures to increase countries’ ability to adapt to conditions of climate change. The means of change may be called nationally determined contributions. NDC’s are essentially the efforts that each country will take to reduce their emissions. The period of effect for this agreement began on November 4 of 2016. So far, it has been ratified by 132 out of 197 Parties at the convention. [6]

Preceding COPs

2009: Copenhagen (COP15)

The Copenhagen Conference was intended to follow on from Kyoto, and culminated in the Copenhagen Accord, has a 3-page text laying out common international intentions concerning climate change (reducing greenhouse gas emissions, limiting global warming to 2 ° C and providing $ 30 billion) for 2010-2012). Despite these goals, the conference is considered a failure. [7] [8]

2011: Durban (COP17)

The aim of the Durban Conference is to start negotiations for the future. The Ah Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action has been created to “close the ambition gap” and increase the temperature by 2 ° C. [9]

2014: Lima (COP20)

The priority of the Lima Conference was to redouble efforts to keep the climate change under 2 ° C between the present day and 2100. The conference opened with a preparatory document on a future COP21 agreement in Paris and by adopting a 37-page text. [10]

2015: Paris (COP21)

The 195 countries participating in the conference adopted the first world climate agreement, a binding treaty that aims to limit climate change to a temperature increase of under 2 ° C. [11]


The convention is awaited by parties, observers, or members of the press / media.


There are three distinct groups that are considered to be “party”. These are Annex I , Annex II , and Non-Annex I . The organization of parties decides the level of participation of each country. It determines the need to give financial advice, how often they must report, and the strictness of regulations in their country. The Annex I title refers to industrialized countries involved in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development ( OECD ) in 1992 or countries in economic transition ( EIT). Annex II refers to countries in OECD but not EIT. These parts are required to help less advanced countries financially. They are also expected to take additional measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Non-Annexes are developing and particularly vulnerable to climate change, economic situations, or other issues institutionalized into the country. Another title is “least developed countries”. [12] This indicates that the nation is limited in its ability to respond to climate change issues. This label indicates to other parties the necessary level of support.


Observer organizations include the United Nations Systems and its specialized agencies, inter-governmental organizations ( IGOs ), and non-governmental organizations ( NGOs ). [13] Observer organizations must apply to the UNFCCC. NGOs, research and academic institutes, native populations, gender-affiliated groups, youth groups, environmental activists, farmers, and agriculturists. [13] Around 2,000 NGOs and 100 IGOs ​​were admitted to the 2016 conference. Once approved, they do not have to reapply for the following conference. [14] Observers may submit responses, on behalf of their entire organization,

Objectives of COP22

Each COP is meant to cooperatively decide on how to combat climate change and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, each year a different theme is chosen and focused on. The twenty-second session dealt with water management and decarbonizing energy supplies. [15] COP22 took place on November 14 and 15 during the UNFCCC in Marrakech. [15] The ways in which the Paris Agreement will be applied, were on the agenda for COP22. Nik Gowing , known as a British journalist, chaired the event.

African Dimension to COP22

On the margins of COP22, a summit involving “around 30 African heads of state” took place on 16 November 2016 in Marrakesh. This summit is primarily focused on climate negotiations, in the backdrop of Africa being part of the world is the most threatened by global warming. The city of Marrakesh also took the opportunity to create a greener image. for example, it has provided 300 bicycles for public use as part of a municipal bicycle-sharing scheme. [16]

Presentation of SuRe – The Standard for Sustainable and Resilient Infrastructure

On 14 November, the Swiss Global Infrastructure Basel Foundation (GIB) presents the newly launched SuRe – The Standard for Sustainable and Resilient Infrastructure at the Climate Summit for Local and Regional Leaders. [17]GIB participated in a dialogue on “financing the sustainable transition of territories” to contribute to the Marrakech Roadmap for Action definition.

November 14th

Water Management and Conservation Forum

Water supply, sustainable distribution, innovation for conservation, and accelerating efforts for new technologies. There were four moderators of the event: Raymond van Ermen , Belgian member of the European Water Partnership; Masagos Zulkifli , Minister for the Environment and Water Resources of Singapore; Edgar Gutiérrez Espeleta , Minister of Environment and Energy in Costa Rica and President, UNEA; Susan Mboya , President of the Coca-Cola Africa Foundation. [18]

Decarbonization of Energy Supplies Keynote Panel

This panel addresses issues related to the use of renewable resources, and can be used to promote these markets. The moderators include Nik Gowing , British journalist; HE Fatima Al Foora of the United Arab Emirates; Lord Gregory Baker of the United Kingdom; Andreas Regnell of Sweden and Jan Rabe from Siemens AG. [18]

Accelerating Urban Mobility Forum

Mobility, especially public transportation, was the main focus of this forum. Members discussed possibilities for sustainable public transportation options that were attractive to the user. The main goal was to innovate ways public transportation could become zero emission. The moderators included Nik Gowing , United Kingdom; Andreas Klugescheid, United States; Lan Marie Nguyen Berg, Norway; Glen R. Murray , Canada; Matt Rodriquez, United States. [18]

Financing Climate Action Closing Keynote Panel

This panel discusses new green products in relation to finance, while also incorporating climate considerations throughout economic systems. The panel members include Eric Usher, Canada; Jochen Flasbarth, Germany; Christian Grossman, Germany; Frederic Samama, France; Mustapha Bakkoury, Morocco; Monica Scatasta, Luxembourg. [18]

November 15th

Low Carbon Innovation in Emerging Regions Keynote Panel

Parts discussed how low emission technology can be integrated into existing infrastructure, how can policymakers implement technology safely, and how can the environment be improved? The moderators include Janos Pasztor, Hungarian; HE Nestor Batio Bassiere, Burkina Faso; Diego Pavia; Mafalda Duarte, United States; Elham Ibrahim, Africa. [18]

Sustainable Business as a Driver of Change

This forum developed ideas on how to create a business model that has a minimal carbon footprint on the earth. The moderators include Philippe Joubert, Nigeria; Peter Wheeler, UK; Pertti Korhonen, Finland; Paul Simpson, UK; April Crow, US. [18]

Impacting Innovation: Accelerating Green Academic Growth

This forum discusses new technologies and innovations must showcase environmentally friendly and sustainable attributes. Additionally, they should help create green jobs and also be able to enter into existing markets. Moderators include Sue Reid, Indonesia; Paul Isaac Musasizi, Uganda; Eric Olson, US; Yoshioka Tatsuya, Japan. [18]

Criticisms and setbacks

The inclusion of fossil fuel lobby groups with observer status, including the World Coal Association , the Business Council of Australia , Business Europe , and the Business Roundtable , has been with criticism. [19] Analysts suggest the election of Donald Trump in the 2016 United States Presidential race in the face of climate change. His stance on climate change was unknown. [20] [21]

Other criticisms came from the environment that the conference was “heavy on rhetoric and light on real progress.” The Conference in Paris is the first year of the future, with the coming event in Marrakesh. Additional criticisms are not enough in the world. [22]


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  2. Jump up^ Xinhua. “Morocco – Preparations are well underway in Marrakech for the holding of COP22 in 2016 – Maghreb Emergent” . www.maghrebemergent.com . Retrieved 2016-11-10 .
  3. ^ Jump up to:b Change, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate. “Introduction to the Convention” . unfccc.int . Retrieved 2017-02-20 .
  4. Jump up^ Change, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate. “A Summary of the Kyoto Protocol” . unfccc.int . Retrieved 2017-02-20 .
  5. ^ Jump up to:b Change, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate. “Kyoto Protocol” . unfccc.int . Retrieved 2017-02-20 .
  6. Jump up^ Change, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate. “The Paris Agreement – main page” . unfccc.int . Retrieved 2017-02-20 .
  7. Jump up^ “BBC News – Why did Copenhagen fail to deliver a climate deal?” . news.bbc.co.uk . Retrieved 2016-11-10 .
  8. Jump up^ Vidal, John; Stratton, Allegra; Goldenberg, Suzanne (2009-12-18). “Low targets, dropped goals: Copenhagen ends in failure” . The Guardian . ISSN  0261-3077 . Retrieved 2016-11-10 .
  9. Jump up^ Change, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate. “Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action” . unfccc.int . Retrieved 2016-11-10 .
  10. Jump up^ Conference of the parties . Lima. 2014.
  11. Jump up^ “Paris Agreement – European Commission” . ec.europa.eu . Retrieved 2016-11-10 .
  12. Jump up^ Change, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate. “Parties & Observers” . unfccc.int . Retrieved 2017-02-20 .
  13. ^ Jump up to:b Change, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate. “Observer organizations and civil society” . unfccc.int . Retrieved 2017-02-20 .
  14. Jump up^ Change, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate. “Non-received NGOs and IGOs” . unfccc.int . Retrieved 2017-02-20 .
  15. ^ Jump up to:b “COP22 Marrakech Morocco – Sustainable Innovation Forum in partnership with United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) | COP22 Marrakech” . www.cop22.org . Retrieved 2017-02-20 .
  16. Jump up^ “Cop22: 300 self-service bikes in Marrakech” . Today Morocco . Retrieved 2016-11-10 .
  17. Jump up^ http://www.gib-foundation.org/news/
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  19. Jump up^ Slezak, Michael (6 November 2016). “Marrakech climate talks: giving the fossil fuel lobby a seat at the table” . The Guardian . London, United Kingdom. ISSN  0261-3077 . Retrieved 2016-11-07 .
  20. Jump up^ Chomsky, Noam. “Noam Chomsky on the new Trump era” . Youtube . Al Jazeera Upfront . Retrieved 2 December 2016 .
  21. Jump up^ Victor, David (November 14, 2016). “How Bad Will Trump Be for Climate Policy?” . MIT Technology Review . Retrieved May 19, 2017 .
  22. Jump up^ “Climate campaigners are extremely disappointed in the outcome of COP22 summit” . The Independent . 2016-11-19 . Retrieved 2017-02-25.

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